List of Hormones in our body

One of the most important components required for normal functioning of the body are hormones. They are instrumental in smooth functioning of the body including digestion, respiration, growth, reproduction, sleep, and even our moods. Produced in the endocrine glands that are located in various parts of the body, hormones are chemical messengers that trigger many body functions. And, when the endocrine gland has any disease, it results in hormonal disorders.

Hormones travel throughout the body, yet they can trigger action only on a specific organ. Upon reaching the target organ, these hormones initiate or inhibit certain functions of the body. For example, the thyroid-stimulating hormone produced in the pituitary gland acts on the thyroid glands and influences the production of thyroid hormones. Aldosterone produced in the adrenal glands acts on the kidneys and regulates electrolyte balance and helps in balancing fluids.

Here’s a list of hormones that are produced in various endocrine glands with their functions.

Hormones and their functions

 

HORMONEFUNCTION
Adrenocorticotropic
Hormone (ACTH)

(Pituitary Gland)

Assists in the synthesis and secretion of adrenocortical hormones - aldosterone, androgens & cortisol.
Antidiuretic hormone
(ADH) / Vasopressin

(Pituitary Gland)

  • Stimulates reabsorption of water from urine in kidneys.
  • Triggers vasoconstriction (constriction of blood vessels).
  • Above two actions result in the increase of blood pressure.
Follicle-stimulating
hormone (FSH)

(Pituitary Gland)

  • Stimulates growth of ovarian follicle in women.
  • Assists in maturation of sperm in the testes in men.

Growth hormone/Somatotropin

(Pituitary Gland)

  • Stimulates synthesis of proteins and growth of cells in all
    tissues including bones.
  • Increases fat breakdown and provides tissue growth.
Luteinizing
hormone (LH)

(Pituitary Gland)

  • Stimulates ovulation, formation of the corpus luteum, and
    production of estrogen and progesterone in women.
  • Stimulates the testes to produce testosterone in men.
Oxytocin

(Pituitary Gland)

  • Stimulates secretion of milk from breasts during lactation in
    women.
  • Triggers and enhances of uterine muscle contractions in
    women.
  • Assists in sperm movement and production of testosterone.
Prolactin

(Pituitary Gland)

Promotes development of breasts and milk production and secretion in women.
Thyroid-stimulating
hormone (TSH)

(Pituitary Gland)

Stimulates synthesis & secretion of thyroid hormones - thyroxine & triiodothyronine.
Melatonin

(Pineal Gland)

Secretes melatonin & related hormones which activates antioxidant enzymes that perform restorative functions. Has antiaging properties and plays an important role in regulating circadian rhythm.
Thyroxine (T4) and
Triiodothyronine (T3)

(Thyroid)

Increases body’s metabolic rate, assists in growth of tissues, and bones, regulates protein synthesis.
Calcitonin

(Thyroid)

  • Regulates levels of calcium and phosphate in blood.
  • Triggers release of calcium from bones into bloodstream to
    prevent bone breakdown.
  • Also reduces the calcium levels present in the blood and tissue fluid.
Parathyroid
hormone (PTH)

(Parathyroid)

  • Increases calcium absorption from the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Controls levels of calcium in the blood.
  • Assists the kidneys to retain calcium that is otherwise lost in urine.
Cortisol

(Adrenal cortex)

  • It is a glucocorticoid steroid hormone that has many metabolic and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • Controls salt and water balance, blood sugar levels, and blood pressure.
Aldosterone

(Adrenal cortex)


  • It is a mineral corticoid hormone that regulates concentrations of essential electrolytes.
  • It affects the blood pressure, and heart.
Norepinephrine and
epinephrine

(Adrenal medulla)

  • Increases blood sugar levels, heart rate, and relaxes muscles
    in airways.
  • Responsible for fight-or-flight responses.
Insulin

(Pancreas)

Acts on cells to increase glucose uptake from the bloodstream.
Glucagon

(Pancreas)

Promotes release of stored glucose from liver and production of glucose, if necessary.
Testosterone

(Testes)

  • It is an anabolic steroid that promotes development, maturation of testes and secondary sexual characteristics of men.
  • Assists in sperm production in men.
  • Promotes sexual arousal in women.
Estrogen

(Ovaries)

  • Promotes tissue development in female reproductive system.
  • Increases the growth and development of the and breasts, as well as the sexual characteristics of women.
  • Assists in the development and maturation of sperms in men.
  • Regulates the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium).
Progesterone

(Ovaries)

  • Assists in preparing the uterus walls to accept fertilizes eggs.
  • Stimulates development of milk-producing tissue in breasts.
  • May stimulate weight gain in both men and women.
Thymosin

(Thymus Gland)

  • Stimulates maturation of T cells.
  • It is active only until puberty.

Hormones are also secreted by other organs of the body, but these are not endocrine glands. These hormones also play an important role in regulating body functions. Organs like the heart, kidneys, and the intestines produce certain hormones that assist the body.

Organ/Tissue

Hormone Released

Function

Fat Cells (adipocytes) Leptin Inhibits the feeling of hunger and regulates energy balance
Heart ANP (atrial natriuretic peptide) Regulates the  balance of sodium, potassium, fat, and water in the body
Kidney Renin Regulates blood pressure and blood volume
Kidney Erythropoietin Helps in formation of red blood cells
Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Regulates calcium levels in blood
Placenta Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) Supports the ovarian corpus luteum
Placenta Human somatomammotropin Functions similar to growth hormone
Stomach Gastrin Stimulates secretion of gastric juices
Stomach Ghrelin Stimulates Hunger
Small Intestine Secretin Regulates water balance on the body
Small Intestine Cholecystokinin (CCK) Stimulates protein and fat digestion

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