Bronchospasm is a condition of the bronchi (See: Bronchi). In this condition, the muscles in the walls off the bronchioles suddenly constrict. Bronchospasm causes breathing problems that can be mild to severe. When the muscles of the bronchioles constrict, the airways get narrow. This leads to a difficulty in breathing and reduced amount of oxygen to the body. Bronchospasm occurs either due to the contraction of the smooth muscles in the bronchi and bronchioles, excessive production of sputum blocking the airways, drying or overcooling of the airways, or due to an inflammation of the airways. This condition causes cough, wheezing, tightness or pain in the chest, and fatigue. Bronchospasm normally affects people with asthma. It even affects people who smoke, inhale fumes or smoke from fire, infections of the lungs, and exposure to allergic substances. It occurs in certain disease conditions like emphysema, bronchitis, and COPD. A bronchospasm is diagnosed using tests like spirometry, lung diffusion capacity, lung volume test, pulse oximetry, chest x-ray, and CT scan. Treatment for bronchospasm includes medications like long and short-acting bronchodilators, and oral and intravenous steroids. In case of an infection-induced bronchospasm, antibiotics and other medications are prescribed. Diabetes is known to cause lung complications due to persistent high blood sugar levels. In some people with diabetes, especially those who take medication for high blood pressure and are aged above 60 years, the risk of bronchospasm is present. Also, the presence of diabetes and COPD is another risk factor for bronchospasm. Bronchospasm can be life-threatening when it comes with anaphylaxis, and when it is a side effect of a medication like beta blockers.