Breast Cancer Male/Female:
Breast cancer is a very common type of cancer that affects women. It sometimes also affects men. There are many types of breast cancer and each has a different ability to spread to other tissues of the body. The symptoms of breast cancer include formation of lumps in the breast, thickening of the breast, bloody nipple discharge, inverted nipple, change in the texture of the skin around the nipple, sore nipple, pain in the breast, and swollen lymph nodes in the armpits and the neck. A self-examination of the breast is advised for every adult woman to look for change in the texture of the skin and to feel for lumpy structures. Diagnosis of breast cancer is done by using a diagnostic test called mammogram. It can also be diagnosed by an ultrasound, and if required, a biopsy. Risk factors of breast cancer include age, smoking, and consumption of alcohol, genetic factors, hormone replacement therapy, late menopause, postmenopausal obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Breast cancer five stages. In stage zero, there is ductal carcinoma in situ, and it is only limited to the ducts and has not spread to other tissues. In stage one, the cancer is around two centimeters and has not yet spread to the lymph nodes. In stage two, the cancer has spread to the surrounding lymph nodes. In stage three, the cancer has grown to five centimeters and has spread to other lymph nodes. In stage four, the cancer has spread to other organs including the lungs, liver, brain, and the bones. Treatment to breast cancer includes radiation therapy, surgery, chemotherapy, biological therapy, and hormone therapy. While the survival rate for patients in stage zero and one is almost 100%, the survival rate reduces as the stage progresses and is only 22% for those at stage four. Breast cancer is also known to affect men, though it is very rare. The risk of male breast cancer increases due to excess levels of estrogen in the body, having a family history of breast cancer, inherited gene mutations (BRCA2), radiation exposure, excessive alcohol consumption, liver disease, obesity, estrogen treatment for prostate conditions, and testicular conditions. The symptoms and the treatment for breast cancer in men is similar to that of women. Research suggests there is a close link between breast cancer and diabetes. Having diabetes increases the likelihood of getting breast cancer and breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of getting diabetes.