These are sex steroid hormones and they regulate the development of male characteristics in humans including the sexual organs and the secondary sexual features that come up during puberty. However, they occur both in men and women. Androgens include testosterone, adrenal androgens, androstenedione, androstenediol, and DHT. The functions of androgens include the formation of testes, inhibiting the storage of certain fats in men, development of muscle mass, influencing brain function, and spermatogenesis, development of androgenic hair and Adam’s apple in men. In women, androgens relaxes the myometrium, prevents premature uterine contractions in pregnancy, and increase their risk of cardiovascular diseases (if androgens are high). A deficiency of androgens in men can cause insufficient bone and muscle development, sexual dysfunction, gynecomastia, depression, obesity, risk of osteoporosis, and lethargy. In older men, androgen deficiency might occur due to diabetes and other conditions. Men might have excess levels of androgens and this might manifest in the form of a partially shrunk testicles, enlarged prostate, hair loss, and reduced fertility. Women with PCOS have the risk of higher levels of androgens and is generally treated with antiandrogens (See: Antiandrogens).