Low density lipoproteins or LDL cholesterol is known as bad cholesterol as it readily oxidizes and gets deposited in the walls of blood vessels that blocks arteries. They are kind of lipoproteins that transport cholesterol from the liver to various tissues of the body. Individuals with high levels of LDL are at increased risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited lipid disorder where high levels of LDL cholesterol is circulated in the blood. The excess cholesterol trapped inside the walls of the blood vessels makes them narrower and thereby reduce or block the blood flow, called as atherosclerosis. Over a period of time lead to various problems to heart and blood vessels known as CVD.
Xanthomas: fatty deposits usually found in tendons and on the elbows, and knees.
Xanthelasma: Small yellowish cholesterol deposits around the eyelids
Corneal arcus: Gray-white cholesterol deposits around the corneas
Lifestyle management: Healthy diet and regular exercise are important to maintaining a healthy weight, which can help lower cholesterol levels. Avoid high fat content diet, add more vegetables, fruits and nuts in the diet. Quit smoking and alcohol
Medications: Lipid lowering medications such as Statins are most commonly used, other medications such as bile acid sequestrants, cholesterol absorption inhibitors, ezetimibe, fibrates, and PSK9 inhibitors
LDL cholesterol apheresis: It is an intensive procedure treatment where LDL is mechanically removed from the blood using special machine