Bulbar conjunctiva:

Bulbar conjunctiva:

The conjunctiva (See: Conjunctiva) covers the white of the eye (sclera), and lines the inside of the eyelids. The bulbar conjunctiva is a part of the conjunctiva apart from palpebral conjunctiva, and fornix conjunctiva. The bulbar conjunctiva is the thinnest part of all the three conjunctiva and covers the eyeball. It is almost transparent. The sclera underneath binds this area of the conjunctiva and moves along with the movements of the eyeball. The conjunctiva functions by providing lubrication to the eye. It produces mucus. It even produces a small amount of tears apart from the lacrimal glands. It provides immunity to the eye and protects it from bacteria. The bulbar conjunctiva gets blood supply from the anterior and posterior conjunctival arteries. It contains many arterioles, venules, and capillaries. The nerve connections to it comes from the ciliary nerves. Some common medical conditions of the conjunctiva and the bulbar conjunctiva include conjunctivitis, which can be caused due to allergy, infection, and exposure to foreign chemicals. Other conditions include follicles, papillae, chemosis, trauma, subconjunctival hemorrhage, and scarring. Natural degeneration of the conjunctiva causes conditions like Cogan’s senile plaque, Pterygium, Pinguecula, formation of cysts, and concretions. Some other conditions like formation of lesions, inflammation, and tumors are common. Most conjunctival conditions present themselves with symptoms like red eye, watery eyes, and pain in the eye, irritation, and discharge from the eye. Diagnosis is done by physical examination, patch test, cytology, and differential diagnosis. The management of conjunctival conditions is done as per the cause of it and the intensity of the inflammation. In case of infections, antibiotic eye drops are prescribed. In case of chemical substances, it is irrigated with saline solution. It is well known that people with diabetes are prone to many eye conditions like cataracts, glaucoma, macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. Apart from these disorders, diabetes and high blood sugar levels also create certain vascular disorders in the conjunctiva leading to dry eyes, tortuosity (twisting) of the blood vessels in the bulbar conjunctiva, changes in the conjunctiva, and microaneurysms in the bulbar conjunctiva. Research suggest that as the duration of diabetes increases, there is a decrease in the overall vessel mean area in the smaller blood vessels. This leads to capillary loss and morphological changes in the conjunctiva

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