Arrhythmia:

Arrhythmia:

Arrhythmia is a condition of the heart. It is also known as cardiac dysrhythmia. Arrhythmia is a condition where people have irregular heartbeat that is either too slow or too fast. It can manifest in the form of palpitations (See: Palpitations) where patients describe a perception of the heart pausing and starting in between beats. Arrhythmia is accompanied by shortness of breath, chest pain, and a loss of consciousness in case of certain diseases. Arrhythmia is of four types – extra beats, ventricular arrhythmias, supraventricular tachycardias, and bradyarrhythmias. These complications occur due to a defective electrical system of the heart. In its further classification, arrhythmias can be of atrial arrhythmia including sinus bradycardia, atrial fibrillation and others. It can be ventricular arrhythmia including ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and others. Also, junctional arrhythmia involves premature junctional contraction, junctional tachycardia, and others. Arrhythmia can also be caused due to blocks in the heart. Arrhythmias manifest with symptoms like frequent or infrequent palpitations with a sensation of the heart fluttering, lightheadedness, fatigue, chest pain, and rapid heartbeats. In some conditions, some people might not experience any symptoms. If left untreated, arrhythmias can lead to cardiac arrest and sudden cardiac death. Arrhythmias are generally diagnosed by auscultation with a stethoscope, using diagnostic tests like ECG or EKG, and Holter monitor. Treatment includes antiarrhythmic drugs, surgeries, and implantation of pacemakers. Though arrhythmia occurs in elderly people (above 60), it is also known to affect children. Diabetes is associated with numerous cardiovascular and heart diseases. It is known to cause arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. It is also strongly associated with heart rhythm disorders like atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias. Increased blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels and slows the electrical conduction of the heart’s electrical activity. Moreover, some people who are diabetic for many years are at a risk of developing autonomic neuropathy of the heart. The oxidative stress of diabetes is another factor leading to the risk of arrhythmias in people with diabetes. Episodes of hypoglycemia are also known to trigger cardiac arrhythmia and in some cases, leads to death in sleep.

Discussion