Diabetes Complications

Educating Patients about the Complications

Diabetes is a life-long condition that needs to be managed diligently to prevent complications. Individuals with diabetes can have healthy life and live active without any complications if the condition is managed in a timely manner. The most common complications that needs attention are

Microvascular Complications

Eye Disease: Retinopathy is the frequent complication that affects diabetes patients with long
duration, poorly controlled and have high blood pressure.

Do’s and Don’ts

Types of diabetes

  • Control your blood glucose levels as effectively as possible.
  • Regularly check your blood pressure if it is raised and eye checkup (as suggested by your doctor) for
    early diagnosis and treatment.
  • If already diagnosed regular eye check-up can avoid the worsening of condition
  • Get health care provider advice immediately if you experience any problems with your sight.
  • Along with glucose levels and BP, control cholesterol levels and refrain from smoking.
  • Adapt healthy life style and balance your weight.

Kidney Disease (Diabetic Nephropathy):

Types of diabetes
Damage to your kidneys caused due to diabetes. High blood sugar can overwork the kidneys, and
over a period of time they get damaged.

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Tight control of your blood glucose and blood pressure (target 130/80mmHg) will delay
    or prevent this complication. As it has direct impact on disease progression.
  • Avoid too much of salt, high protein diet, alcohol,and tobacco.
  • Follow regular at least 30mins of walking and exercise
  • Adhere to antihypertensive and antihyperglycemic medication. It will lower your blood pressure and glucose levels thereby slow down the rate of kidney damage.
  • Follow low protein diet which will decrease protein loss in the urine and increase in blood
  • So if you have diabetes and hypertension, make sure you go for regularly check-up, at least once in a year.
  • Kidney disease in diabetes patients can be managed by strictly following low protein and low fat diet specifically as suggested by the doctor and the dietician

Nerve Damage (Diabetic neuropathy)

  • Nerve damage due to diabetes is diabetic neuropathy. Depending on the parts affected it
    may be different types.
  • Neuropathy affecting your feet and legs may cause numbness, tingling or burning feeling
    or serious foot problems such as ulcers and infections.
  • Neuropathy affecting heart, bladder, lungs, stomach, intestines and eyes that can cause
    constipation, difficulty in swallowing.

Foot Complications:

  • Diabetes if left unattended or untreated may gradually lead to nerve damage in feet and legs.
  • Restricted blood supply to make them cold and painful. Which on injury take long time to heal
    and more prone to infections.
  • Following are the foot problems that you should always be observing ulcers, cracked heels,
    fungal infections, calluses, hammer toes, ingrown toenails, and corns.

Do’s and Don’ts

Types of diabetes

  • Check your feet for cuts, redness, blisters, or nail problems every day.
  • Quit smoking- smoking reduces blood flow to the feet
  • Select comfortable footwear
  • Get comprehensive foot examination done by your doctor at every visit.

Macrovascular Complications:

Heart Complication:

Uncontrolled or poorly controlled diabetes patients have high chance of having heart disease and stroke associated with high blood pressure.
Types of diabetes

Do’s and Don’ts

  • Control blood glucose levels and blood pressure
  • You need to follow and adhere to the treatment as prescribed by your doctor
  • Do regular exercise or walking
  • Have a healthy diet
  • Regularly monitor your glucose levels and blood pressure.
  • Avoid sedentary life style and quit smoking
  • Contact your doctor immediately in case of very high blood glucose and blood pressure.