Importance of Medication Adherence in Diabetes

Diabetes is a complex disorder typically requiring multiple medications to achieve control of blood sugar levels. Blood sugar control is an important aspect of diabetes treatment in order to avoid serious and long term complications.

For a person with diabetes, sticking to the treatment plan provided by the diabetes doctor is the first step to take in order to stay healthy. This involves taking medicines on time as instructed by the doctor and is called medication adherence in medical parlance.


What is medication adherence?

Taking medications as instructed at the right time of day, frequency, and dosage is medication adherence. This is a significant factor for a patient’s successful management of diabetes. Medication adherence directly influences glycemic control and clinical consequences.

More often than not, people with diabetes find it difficult to adhere to their medication plan totally. This is because of various factors including complacence, lack of knowledge, unavailability of specific medications, and lack of communication between the care teams and patients.

It is important for both the caregivers, clinic team, and the patients to work together and address key issues that hinder medication adherence. This way, by sticking to the treatment plan, people with diabetes have better chances to avoid serious complications and lead a healthy life.


Key strategies to improve medication adherence

Spreading Awareness and Knowledge:

Studies reveal that taking medications as part of a daily routine and utilizing pill boxes were the most frequently reported helpful methods to improve adherence.  The three most motivating factors that patients identified were their knowledge that diabetes medications work effectively to lower blood glucose, understanding how they could manage side effects of their medications and a better understanding of the drugs’ benefits.


Addressing side effects:

Non-adherence has been linked with poorer treatment outcomes and progression of disease symptoms and complications. Another interesting aspect is that factors such as inability to afford a prescription or adverse reactions to a drug such as weight gain or nausea, also contribute for patient’s non-adherence to medications. In such cases, the clinic team and patients should work closely in order find the right prescription that works for the patient.


Ensuring Constant Communication:

Non-adherence of medications is found to have a significant impact on risk of diabetes complications. However, once patients leave the clinic, they generally find it difficult to communicate with the care team for any small query. By keeping communication channels open so that the clinic team and patients constantly interact ensures better results.

Tips and Techniques to Inject Insulin

It is common for many people who use insulin injections to commit errors while administering insulin.  Here are a few tips and techniques that would help you understand how to use insulin injections effectively.

Steps for injecting insulin

Insulin Kit:

  • An insulin pen
  • Enough insulin inside to give the required dose
  • A new pen needle
  • Cotton wool or a tissue

Injecting your insulin shot

When you are injecting insulin, you should aim to inject into the fatty tissue just underneath the skin. To perform your insulin injection:

  • Wherever possible, wash your hands with soap and water before injecting
  • Put a new needle onto your pen
  • Perform an ‘air shot’ of at least 2 units to clear any bubbles out of the needle – if you do not get a steady stream, repeat the air shot until you do get a steady stream
  • Dial up your dose – how you do this exactly may depend on which pen you have
  • Pick a soft fatty area to inject – tops of thighs, belly, bum and triceps (not always recommended for children or thinner people)
  • Raise a fold of fatty flesh slightly between your thumb and fingers – leaving plenty of space between to put the needle in
  • Put the needle in – if you are particularly slim, you may need to put the needle in at a 45 degree angle to avoid injecting into the muscle
  • Push the plunger, to inject the dose, relatively slowly
  • After the dose has been injected, hold the needle in for a good 10 seconds to prevent too much insulin from escaping out
  • If any blood or insulin escapes, wipe this with cotton wool or a tissue
  • Ensure that the used needle is deposited into a sharps bin

How to avoid pain when injecting insulin

Many diabetes patients are worried about the pain of injecting insulin. There are several methods that can help avoid or minimise pain when injecting.

  • Making sure the muscles above which you’re injecting are relaxed, this will allow for a better coverage of fat where you’re injecting.
  • Use insulin and a needle which is at room temperature
  • Push the needle in quickly
  • Try not to wiggle the needle as you’re injecting or withdrawing the needle
  • Always use a new needle

Injections and Bruising

You may notice a little blood leaking out after injecting. This is not a cause for concern as it just means the needle has gone through a small blood vessel.

If this happens, you may notice a raised area of your skin from the blood underneath but this should ease down over the next few hours and you’ll be left with a bit of a bruise for a few days.

Tips for Injecting Insulin

  • Stomach:  Stay at least two inches away from the bellybutton or any scars you may already have when using the abdomen for injections.
  • Thigh: Inject at least 4 inches or about one hand’s width above the knee and at least 4 inches down from the top of the leg. The best area on the leg is the top and outer area of the thigh. Do not inject insulin into your inner thigh because of the number of blood vessels and nerves in this area.
  • Arm: Inject into fatty tissue in the back of the arm between the shoulder and the elbow.
  • Buttock: Inject into the hip or “wallet area” and not into the lower buttock area.
  • When rotating sites within one injection area, keep injections about an inch (or
    two finger widths) apart.
  • Do not inject into scar tissue or areas with broken vessels or varicose veins. Scar tissue may interfere with absorption.
  • Massage or exercise that occurs immediately after the injection may speed up absorption because of the increased circulation to the injection site. If you plan on strenuous physical activity shortly after injecting insulin, don’t inject in an area affected by the exercise. For example, if you plan to play tennis, don’t inject into your racquet arm. If you plan to jog or run, don’t inject into your thighs.
  • When injecting with an insulin pen, inject straight in and be sure to hold the pen in place for a few seconds after the insulin is delivered to ensure that no insulin leaks out.

Diabetes Care for the Elderly

Many age-related changes affect the clinical presentation of diabetes. These changes can make recognition and treatment of diabetes complicated. Because of normal physiological changes associated with aging, elderly diabetes patients rarely present with typical symptoms of hyperglycemia.  Though it is recommended for all adults, the ideal HbA1c target of less than 7% may be difficult to achieve.

Here are a few aspects of diabetes care in the elderly:

Diet Tips for the Elderly with Diabetes

A diabetic diet is a healthy meal plan with small and frequent meals and a good mix of carbohydrates, protein, and fats. It needs to be low on the glycemic index and should have a good distribution of carbohydrates. Elderly need to be more careful as they are vulnerable to fall into the trap of malnutrition. With decreased metabolism, peristalsis and absorption, it is essential to get a customised plan based on one’s biochemical and physical parameters.

  • Use whole grains and pulses rather than refined cereals like maida(all-purpose flour).
  • Ensure liberal intake of green leafy vegetables in the form of salads, soups, cooked vegetables as sabzis etc.
  • Ensure judicious intake of roots and tubers like potatoes, colocasia (arbi), sweet potato, yam, etc.
  • Select snacks that are roasted or steamed like sprouts, or poha.
  • Preferably consume at least 2 litres of water every day.
  • A gap of 2 hours after dinner is required. Avoid going to bed immediately.
  • Add legumes to diet since they can reduce cholesterol levels in blood.
  • Add calcium-rich sources like milk to strengthen bones.

Importance of Medication Regimen

Timely intake of medication and diet will prevent senior diabetes patients getting into hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia. Compromised cognitive abilities in the elderly can make them forgetful about their medicines. It is suggested they pre-order for medication refill from online or pharmacy stores to ensure medication adherence. It is also suggested to consider storing three days of diabetes supplies which may be handy in emergency. Poor medication adherence results in increased risk of developing diabetes-related complications.

Physical Fitness Goals for the Elderly

ADA recommends 150 minutes of moderate physical activity per week for people with diabetes. As age advances, slight discomfort and minor aches and pains are normal at the beginning of any new fitness regimen. However, seniors should cease or reduce any exercise or movement that causes sharp, stabbing pain or joint pain.

Diabetes Complications in the Elderly

Complications of diabetes occur in the elderly at higher rates. This includes, but is not limited to, autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular complications, retinopathy and foot ulcers.

Prolonged high blood sugar levels can damage blood vessels of the retina causing them to break and leak blood into the eye which can cloud or obscure vision. Hearing loss can result from damaged blood vessels and nerves inside the ear. Arthritis can limit their mobility and effect their physical activity.  Elderly diabetes patients are more prone to gum infections and are advised to visit a dentist in case of any gum bleeding/ bad breath.

Considering the susceptibility of diabetes complications, and taking age into consideration, elderly people with diabetes should keep a close watch on blood sugar levels, get regular tests, and never ignore any minor changes in the body.

Understanding types of Diabetes Mellitus

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There are three main types of diabetes mellitus: Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. There is also a stage before diabetes called pre-diabetes. People who have pre-diabetes are at risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus later in life if they do not monitor their condition carefully.

The first and one of the main types of diabetes mellitus is Type 1 diabetes, an autoimmune disease where the pancreas produces very little insulin or no insulin at all. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus presents usually under the age of 20, when the person is a child or young adult. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus is mostly a genetic condition where the pancreatic cells are destroyed and hence no insulin production. Thus lifelong insulin therapy is the main stay of type 1 diabetes mellitus treatment.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is normally found in people who are overweight. Although it is sometimes called adult onset diabetes, more children and young adults are being diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes because they are not getting enough activity.

About 90 percent of all cases of diabetes are Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and here the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or the body does not properly use it.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is also considered a lifestyle disease because it is normally triggered by living a fairly sedentary life, being overweight and not participating in exercise. However, age is a factor as well as heredity.

The third main type of diabetes is gestational diabetes, which is a condition that women can get when they are in the second trimester of pregnancy.  Unlike Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, gestational Diabetes Mellitus will disappear after the baby is born.

The best thing if any individual sense the above said symptoms please do go to Apollo Sugar or any health care facility in out vicinity to take doctor advice.

Apollo sugar is able to provide entire spectrum of diabetes services for effective diabetes management

Never Lose Track with Apollo Glucome Glucometer

As a person with diabetes, you might have used a glucometer at some stage or the other. However, you had stopped using it as all you did was to make a note of your blood sugar level. Was that anyway useful?

There are some of you who have used glucometers and painstakingly entered the readings in a log book. The only result was that your doctor could see blood sugar fluctuations that happened long back – nothing you can do right now.

Why monitor sugar levels?  

For the Correct Treatment –

Monitoring blood sugar levels is an essential aspect of dealing with diabetes. It has to be done along with diet and exercise, and proper medication. This allows your doctors to prescribe the best treatment.

To Understand Fluctuations –

Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels is done as the doctor cannot be there with you always. Yet, without knowing when you have high or low sugar levels, all treatment remains a guesswork.

To see how Effective the Treatment is –

Self-monitoring is important as you would know if your diabetes is responding to the treatment or not. It gives valuable insights and helps prevent long term organ damage.

With the glucometers we have now, the benefits of self-monitoring are not complete for one reason – the doctor has to work on past data!

Diabetes is a changing condition and one cannot ensure that your past fluctuations hold good for future trends. Addressing this major issue and taking self-monitoring to the next level is the Apollo Glucome glucometer.

What is Apollo Glucome?

Apollo Glucome is an innovative digital diabetes care solution. It helps you manage your diabetes real-time. It’s a Digital Diabetes Clinic that you can carry around anywhere!

What’s special about Apollo Glucome?

It accomplishes what other glucometers cannot. It solves the issue of working with past data and helps your doctors have a thorough understanding of your ongoing sugar level trends.

How it does it?

Apollo Glucome is a connected glucose monitor. It can be connected to your smartphone without any wires! You measure your blood sugar levels with Apollo Glucome and the levels directly come to your smartphone.

Once your sugar levels come to the smartphone, they are instantly sent to your doctors and caregivers via Apollo Sugar app.

As your doctor knows your current sugar levels, he/she can advise you immediately – how much to eat, how long to exercise, and if there is a need for medication change.

Easy, Connected, and Smart.

Apollo Glucome also provides essential trends of your blood sugar levels. By analyzing your sugar levels, caregivers can interpret what is working for you and what isn’t. This allows them to alter treatment for better results.

Why using Apollo Glucome is simple?

  • It does not require any Bluetooth, or Wifi to connect to your smartphone
  • Your sugar levels are automatically sent to your Apollo Sugar app
  • You need not maintain a log book. Sugar levels are stored on our cloud platform securely
  • It has no buttons, keys or cables
  • It is simple, small and very easy to carry
  • You can connect it to any android or iOS mobile device
  • It comes with glucometer, gold-plated strips, insulin pen monitor, Apollo Sugar app and a digital diabetes clinic

How it is a Digital Diabetes Clinic?

Every time you measure sugar levels on Apollo Glucome, our Diabetes Educators, Nutritionists, and Doctors constantly monitor your sugar level trends. This allows them to give you advice.

It gives your caregivers real-life insight on how your blood sugar levels behave with respect to medication. Making course corrections is easier now.

With your HbA1c estimation, lifestyle tracking, alerts, and reminders to medications, it is truly a digital diabetes clinic working with your constantly.

Take your diabetes care to the next level. Talk to our experts to know more about Apollo Glucome.               

Why Apollo Sugar App works for you

Sugar app features

There are some scenarios that happen to many people with diabetes – forgetting medication, not being sure if they had eaten right, or not knowing how much to exercise for the meal they had.

Taking constant care for your diabetes while going about the business of life can be strenuous. Diabetes is a condition that needs you to give some time for it every day. Having a healthy and fruitful life with diabetes needs some skills and you have to master it as both life and diabetes do not wait for you.

Why is Diabetes a Balancing act?

Having diabetes is not just about avoiding sugar and taking medications. It is about transforming your lifestyle. Getting to a desired weight, controlling cholesterol levels, maintaining sugar levels, and not stressing out needs proper planning and a good strategy to work.

  • In diabetes, you have to take care of carbohydrate intake and ensure that your exercise burns them out. You have to balance your carbohydrate intake with exercise to keep sugar levels in check.
  • You have to balance your diet and exercise with your medications
  • You need to strike a balance between your diet restrictions and your food cravings
  • You have to accommodate your family’s interests while taking care of your health

Having a career, giving time for your interests, and moving on with life can pose some challenges in diabetes. That’s why you need support.

Wouldn’t it be great if you have someone reminding you to take your medication, get diagnostic tests on time, and show how much improvement you have made?

Apollo Sugar App does this and a lot more!

Designed especially to assist people with diabetes, Apollo Sugar app brings in expert care right to your fingertips. It has a host of features with which you can transform your diabetes care.

What more, it has been proven that condition management that penetrates every aspect of life gives much better results! With regular interactions, you have expert insight available at your fingertips. This makes taking decisions easier!

You now know when to exercise, when to take it easy, how to alter your diet for parties or events plus you never miss out on medications or tests!

Apollo Sugar App Features and Benefits


  • Chat with our Expert Health Coach and get medical advice any time.
  • Know how to control your diabetes with our Diabetes Educators.
  • Get insights on Insulin Dosages.
  • Know what to eat during Parties and Festivals.


  • Upload Prescriptions and get medicines Delivered to your Home.
  • Retrieve all your Lab Reports.
  • Get Diabetes Diet Chart for Breakfast, Lunch, & Dinner from Clinical Nutritionists.
  • Get your recorded Vitals including BMI, BP, & Pulse.


  • Set Reminders for Medication, Doctor Consultations, or Lab Tests.
  • Chat with our Virtual Health on Diabetes, Diet, Medications, and more!
  • Track your Medications.
  • Know about your Blood Sugar Levels.
  • Get a Meal Diary.



  • Upload your Blood Sugar Levels or track it with the Detector feature.
  • Get regular reports and charts of your blood sugar control.

This will help you and your doctors to adjust your diet, exercise, and medication for better control!


Upload your diet intake and get the carbohydrate consumed. Get the amount of exercise you need to do for the food you had eaten.


Upload your prescription and get reminders to take medications. NEVER MISS OUT ON A SINGLE DOSE OF YOUR MEDICINES ANYMORE!


  • Get simple, actionable insights for your exercise.
  • Know how many calories you have burnt.
  • Get simple exercises for mobility and weight loss.


  • Get meal reminders including Breakfast, Lunch, & Dinner.
  • Get Medicine reminders. Set time and get alerts.
  • Get Reminders for Blood Glucose measurements. Set time and get alerts.


  • Get Food Tips. Discover the Best Diabetes Diet and Menus.
  • Get Exercise Tips. Know how to burn calories, get rid of excess fat, and reduce weight and stress.
  • Get latest insights on how to manage your diabetes.

Download Apollo Sugar app now!


Diabetes Management for the Newly Diagnosed

The initial management of someone who has just been diagnosed as having diabetes mellitus can have a big effect on the course of the illness. It is essential to establish a clear understanding of the disease, the benefits of all aspects of management.

Diabetes management should be discussed with the patient and initiated as soon as possible. Advice on diet and exercise recommendations for people with diabetes.

Life style Management

Eat Healthy: Healthy eating is a critical part of managing your diabetes allowing blood sugar to reach target levels and prevent from diabetes complications.

You can control your blood sugar if you:

  • Maintain an optimal weight
  • Pay attention to what and how much you eat.

A healthy diet is a diet that provides the nutrients to your body needs in sufficient amounts.

Ensure a healthy meal plan: A diabetes meal plan is a guide that tells you how mush and what kind of food you can choose to eat at meal and snack

  • Eat variety of foods to ensure a balanced diet.
  • Eat plenty of vegetables and fruits.
  • Ensure moderate use of edible oils and animal foods and very less use of ghee, butter and vanaspati.
  • Overeating should be avoided to prevent weight gain.
  • Exercise regularly and be physically active.
  • Use salt in moderation
  • Practice right cooking methods to maintain the nutritious value of foods, drink plenty of water.
  • Minimize the use of processed foods rich in salt, sugar and fats
  • Include micronutrient-rich foods in diet.

Use the diabetes food pyramid:

Divide food into groups based on what they contain. Eat more from groups at the bottom of pyramid and less from groups at the top.

Main pillar in prevention of Diabetes

  • Improves psychological well-being
  • Changing habits is difficult
  • Set realistic goals to achieve
  • Increase daily physical activity – any activity is useful, having fun
  • important factor in keeping active

People with diabetes should be advised to perform at least 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (50–70% of maximum heart rate) and if no contraindications, resistance training three times per week should be encouraged.

Progressive resistance exercise improves insulin sensitivity in older men with type 2 diabetes to the same or even a greater extent as aerobic exercise.

Managing Insulin & Gestational Diabetes

Diabetes management requires awareness to know what makes your blood sugar level rise and fall – and how to control these day-to-day factors. The plan involves healthy eating , physical activity and medication (insulin and other diabetes medications) designed to lower your blood sugar level when diet and exercise alone aren’t sufficient for managing the condition. Treatment of diabetes primarily involves monitoring of your blood sugar, along with oral diabetes medications, insulin or both. Insulin therapy is an important part of diabetes treatment. Understanding insulin administrating technique can help you manage your diabetes better.


It is a naturally occurring hormone produced by pancreas that regulate your blood glucose levels. In case of diabetes, your body either resists the effects of insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level. Insulin is required for people with diabetes. The efficacy of injection therapy in diabetes depends on correct injection technique. Good injection technique is vital in achieving glycemic control and thus preventing complications of diabetes

Insulin Injection Technique:

Insulin injection technique is important in order to ensure that proper dose of Insulin is delivered in our body. Flaws in the technique will ultimately affect the glyceamic control. At the beginning of injection therapy, you should discuss the following with your doctor

  • Injection Regimen
  • Choice and management of device to be used.
  • Correct Injection techniques (including site rotation, injection angle and possible use of skin folds)
  • Injection complications and how to avoid them
  • Safe disposal of used sharps

Injection Sites:

  • Recommended injection sites for
  • injectable therapy.
  • Absorption is fastest with injection in
  • the abdomen, followed by the arms,
  • thighs and buttocks.

Rotation of Injection Sites:

  • Rotation of injection site is critical to prevent lipohypertrophy (a lump under theskin caused by extra fat)
  • Lipohypertrophy has been linked to poorer glycemic control and may reduceabsorption by 25%
  • Rotation is typically made within the general arm rather than from major site to site.
  • Divide the injection site in to quadrants(abdomen) or halves (thighs or buttocks),using one quadrant per week)
  • Move always clockwise
  • Injection should be atleast 1 cm spaced if done within the same quadrant to avoid repeat tissues trauma.

Injecting the dose:

  • Choose an injection site.
  • Use needles of shorter length and smaller diameter.
  • Clean the skin with an alcohol swab. Pinch up a large area of skin.
  • Insert the needle into the skin at a90 degrees angle. Make sure the needle is in all the way.
  • Push the plunger all the way
  • Pull the needle straight out.
  • Do not rub the injection site. Safely discard the needle and syringe

How to use pen devices:

Pens come in two basic types:

  • Disposable pens are preloaded with insulin and are discarded after the insulin catridge is empty or the pen has been in use for 28 to 32 days.
  • Reusable pens work with insulin catridges that can be loaded into the pen and then tossed away once the insulin is used, leaving the pen ready for next cartridge.

Insulin storage:

  • Keep insulin away from heat and light. Any Insulin that you don’t store in the refrigerator should be kept as cool as possible.
  • Never let your insulin freeze.

Carrying Insulin while travelling:

  • Protect insulin from getting too hot and too cold. Don’t leave insulin in a parked car when temperature are extreme.
  • When travelling by bus, train or plane, keep your insulin and other medicines, andiabetes supplies with you in an insulated bag.
  • To get through airport security, keep your insulin in its original packaging with the prescription label. Have a note from your doctor or pharmacist stating that you are carrying medicine and supplies for diabetes.

Managing GDM at Apollo Sugar :

How to manage GDM:

SMBG: In order to maintain set the Blood Glucose Targets by your doctor

Recommended pattern of blood glucose testing for GDM patients: Ideally,4 times a day, fasting and either 1-2 hours post meals

Regular physical activity as recommended by your doctor

Take the medications regularly as per your doctors’ advice


Post-partum follow up : it is generally recommended that all women with GDM be checked after 6 weeks following delivery. Since, they are also at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes in future; practicing lifestyle is warranted.


Managing Hypoglycemia Effectively

Hypoglycemia or low blood glucose levels are one of the  most fared complications of diabetes treatment. it happens when the blood glucose levels drop below 70 mg/dl (below normal range).it is a risk of all insulin-treated diabetics and in those taking oral medications(insulin secretagofues).As people improve their management to achieve target blood glucose levels, the risk of hypoglycemia increases.

What causes hypoglycemia?

  • Excess insulin – due to misjudgement/miscalculation of insulin dosage
  • decreased food intake – due to skipping or delaying a meal; low carbohydrate diet
  • increased physical activity
  • Alcohol consumption

Preventing the  occurrence of hypoglycaemia:

  • Work with your diabetes care team to understand when your diabetes medications peak, if your medication schedule matches your meal plan and activity, and how to treat hypoglycemia when it occurs
  • learn what triggers low blood glucose levels
  • Always carry a glucometer with you – Frequent monitoring of blood glucose levels is the best way to identify and prevent the serious consequences of hypoglycemia.
  • Always carry some carbohydrate snacks with you especially when you’re travelling
  • carry your medical identification card


  • Mild – moderate hypoglycaemia (capable of self-treating)
  • Sudden huger
  • Headache
  • Trembling
  • Rapid heart-beat, pale skin
  • Sweating, Weakness, fatigue, anxiety, dizziness
  • Poor co-ordination
  • Numbness or tingling around mouth or lips
  • confusion/irritability/nervousness
  • Slurred/slow speech
  • Blurred vision

How to treat mild-moderate hypo episode?

  • Hypoglycemia requires prompt treatment. in case of doubt, take the safe route and treat for hypoglycemia
  • Early recognition coupled with appropriate treatment is critical for effectively managing hypoglycaemia

Follow “Rule 15”

Step 1 : Check your blood glucose levels. if it is below 70 mg/dl, eat 15 grams of carbohydrates. If checking is not possible-still take 15 grams of carbohydrates to be safe .

Step 2 : Wait for 15 minutes-this is just to see if you are feeling better with the carbohydrates dose (step1)

Step3 : Check your blood glucose levels again; if it is still lower than 70 mg/dL-repeat step 1 to 3

Step 4 : Finally, check your glucose levels after 1 hour. You may need an extra carbohydrate snack even if it wasn’t planned earlier.


You can have either of these to help you recover from a “”Hypo episode”(Mild-moderate)

  • 3-4 glucose tablets
  • 1/2 cup fruit juice/150 ml regular soda(soft drink)
  • 3 teaspoons(15 g) of sugar/honey/glucose/roohafza syrup dissolved in water
  • 3 toffees
  • 3 tablespoons raisins
  • 3 glucose biscuits

2) Severe hypoglycemia (not capable of self – treatment)

  • Confusion
  • Becoming argumentative or combative
  • Extreme tiredness
  • Seizures or convulsions
  • Unconsciousness

Note: if not treated, the blood glucose continues to fall and the person might go into coma)

For a person suffering from “Severe hypoglycemia”

If the person in conscious give –

  • 20 g of glucose tablets
  • 4 teaspoons (20g)of sugar/honey/syrup
  • 1 cup of juice/regular soda/soft drink

If unconscious,

  • 1 mg of glucagon
  • Transport to emergency facility for I.V. dextrose

Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG)

Regular SMBG increases the proportion of individuals achieving their glycaemic targets

Individuals should monitor postprandial glucose as part of their SMBG schedule

Regular discussion of results with diabetes care team is essential

Summary of Requirements for Performing SMBG by Diabetes Type

Type-1 diabetes

  • Perform SMBG three or more times per day.
  • Adjust intensity of monitoring to intensity of insulin therapy.
  • Perform SMBG three or more times every day when multiple doses of

Type-2 diabetes

  • The exact frequency is undetermined.
  • Perform SMBG at a sufficient rate to reach glucose goals.
  • If taking insulin therapy, perform SMBG three or more times each day.

Gestational diabetes mellitus

  • Perform SMBG three or more times each day.

5 ways to overpower diabetes while enjoying life


Diabetes comes with its own set of responsibilities.We are sure you’ll agree they are quite a handful. Taking care of the many things that it necessitates means there is a high possibility you feel it lingering over your head pretty much all the time. But hang in there. It doesn’t have to be so.
What if we told you that you can actually make the entire list of related chores from having diabetes diet to exercising way more entertaining? And the best part is, you won’t even know you’re doing it.Win-win!
Adopting practices that make diabetes care seem less daunting is essential to keep you going. Here are some ideas that will make diabetes management fun. Let’s get right to it!

1. If there is anything that you love more than jogging or gymming that makes you sweat it out, do it.

i) Shake it up with somezumba, salsa, or ballet if you may. There is nothing like dancing when it comes to a total body workout.
ii) Pedal away to your favorite music on a bike.
iii) Kick it with some martial arts. We bet you’ll end up feeling muscles you never knew existed once you’re done with this one.
iv) Swim your way to better health. Just moving your arms and feet under water can work both your upper and lower muscles that will equal your gym routine. Oh, and you’ll get some water therapy in the process too!
v) Put a new twist to your workout. Try calisthenics. It’s great for your core stability.
vi) Wii fit. If you or your kids has one of those Wii consoles, you can literally workout in front of the TV by boxing, playing golf or bowling. Motivating and entertaining at the same time.

2. Channel your inner chef. Making meals can soothe rattled nerves and destress so take some time off and slide into an apron. There are plenty of gourmet meal recipes out there that will tingle your taste buds while keeping your sugar levels under control.

3. Why should fun and frolic be restricted to dinners and drinks? Add some excitement and swap up your friends’ day out itinerary for something more fun. Go scuba diving or snorkelling; hit the bowling alley;paddle up a lake and enjoy the warm pleasant breeze; book a court or a ground – play tennis, badminton,cricket, or whatever sport you fancy;put your shoes on and set out on an easy trek.

4. Load up on some happiness. Keeping stress levels under control does positively affect your diabetes in more ways than one. Next time you’re planning a night out, try a comedy show, bring out that bathroom singer at a karaoke club, spend some cozy time with your folks; or join a book reading club. And if laughter therapy appeals to you, why not?

5. Add some zing to your everyday. Small changes in mundane routine can contribute to diabetes treatment significantly considering they are done on an everyday basis. Small drops make up the ocean right? If drinking regular water sounds boring to you, change it up with fruit-infused water; throw in some watermelon pieces, snipped mint, or pineapple, or any other fruit that you fancy in a sipper, and let it cool. Make meal routines more fun by changing up the environment every once in a while. For instance, you can carry a diabetes diet meal to the park or beach for a picnic or barbecue in your backyard.

See? We told you! Now that you’re out of reasons, get right to it! If you have any such fun tip, we are all ears. Just hit us up in the comments below. Oh and before you go, a little piece of advice to take along on your journey with diabetes: always check with your diabetes doctor what you can and cannot do. Because diabetes comes with its own set of complications, there are high chances you might overdo something or work up a part of your body that isn’t in the state to handle it with say intense martial arts or even boating.Also, since it is summer, it is essential to exercise extra caution when indulging in most of the activities.