Bile:

Bile:

Bile is a greenish-yellow liquid that is produced in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. It is a digestive juice that helps in the digestion of fats (lipids) and their absorption in the small intestine. Once food is consumed, bile gets discharged into the duodenum. Bile contains water, bile acids or bile salts, bilirubin, inorganic salts which contain copper and other metals. The function of bile includes emulsification of lipids and fats into smaller particles. Emulsification is the process of breaking down lipids into smaller droplets and increase their surface area so that the enzyme lipase can digest fatty acids. Other functions of bile include breakdown and metabolism of cholesterol, absorption of vitamin A, D, E and K, and helping in the elimination of bilirubin through feces. The acids of bile act like detergents and act on fat present in the foods. Bile also acts as transporters of lipids and help in maintaining cholesterol levels in the body. Generally, the bile acids secreted are reabsorbed into the body, but liver disease hinders this reabsorption. Bile secretion is lowest during fasting. It consists of Secretin and Cholecystokinin. In people with diabetes, a change in the bile acid composition influences glycemic control. In some cases, it has been found that colesevelam and colestimide (medications used to treat bile acid malabsorption) mildly improved glycemic control.

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