Bicuspid:

Bicuspid:

Bicuspid means that it has two cusps. A cusp is a point where two curves meet. Bicuspid is generally related to the bicuspid valve of the heart. Known as the mitral valve, it is one of the four valves of the heart that is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It allows blood flow in one direction. As oxygenated blood passes through the atrium to the ventricle, the valve closes in order to prevent blood flowing in backward direction. Since it has only two flaps, it is called bicuspid valve. The bicuspid or the mitral valve and the aortic valve are present in the left side of the heart. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary circulation and blood flows to the left ventricle through the bicuspid valve. The bicuspid valve closes during the systolic phase and opens during the diastolic phase. In a normally functioning heart, during the diastolic phase, the bicuspid valve opens up due to increased pressure from the left atrium. As the diastolic phase ends, there is atrium contraction. At the end of atrial contraction, the bicuspid valve closes in order to prevent backward flow of blood. Some common disease conditions of the bicuspid or mitral valve are mitral regurgitation, rheumatic heart disease, infective endocarditis, mitral stenosis, and a congenital condition called bicuspid aortic valve. Most of the bicuspid valve conditions need surgery either for correction or for replacement. A procedure called mitral valvuloplasty is a less invasive procedure that can rectify narrowed bicuspid valves. People with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular and heart diseases that could progress into heart attacks and ischemic strokes. This is because high blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels and people with diabetes also tend to have high LDL levels and high triglyceride levels. Most people with diabetes are generally at a risk of developing arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis. People with diabetes are also prone to have mitral value conditions like mitral annulus calcification, and aortic valve stenosis. Having high blood pressure, and having nonalcoholic fatty liver disease are seen as risk factors for these conditions. Since nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is common among people with type 2 diabetes, the risk of valve damage is high. Other factors in people with diabetes like inflammatory responses, and buildup of calcium and plaque are also contributors for these conditions. Symptoms of bicuspid valve diseases include chest pain, fainting, shortness of breath, and rapid heartbeat.

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