Bone Mineral Density:
Bone mineral density, bone mass density, or bone density is the amount of bone mineral present in the bone tissue. It is the measure of bone strength and determines the amount of calcium present in the bone mass. It is the amount of the mass of bone mineral present in a particular volume of bone. It is a diagnostic test performed in order to evaluate certain conditions of the musculoskeletal system like osteoporosis, osteopenia, and others. A decreased bone mineral density indicates an increased risk of fractures, presence of osteoporosis, and other conditions. Bone mineral density is generally assessed in the regions of the hip, wrists, spine, and sites of previous fractures. Bone mineral density test is done with a procedure called densitometry, which is done by exposing the patient to low radiation. This test is also known as x-ray absorptiometry. The test is non-invasive. It is prescribed to people with chronic kidney disease, alcoholics, women after menopause, people with a family history of osteoporosis, and women above 65. The results of the test are measured in the T-score. The T-score represents the bone mineral density when compared to the optimal peak bone mineral density of a healthy young adult aged 30 years. A T-score between 1 and negative 1 is considered normal. A T-score between negative 1 to negative 2.5 is considered a risk of osteoporosis. A T-score of less than negative 2.5 is considered a severe risk of osteoporosis. In people with diabetes, due to the effects of high blood sugar levels, there is a change in bone metabolism. People with type 1 diabetes experience decrease in bone mineral density. As for people with type 2 diabetes, many studies indicate that they have higher bone mineral density, but they are still prone to fractures. Though this might be due to the formation of micro-cracks and impaired bone repair, the studies are inconsistent when it comes to the relation between type 2 diabetes and bone mineral density.